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Digital and Online Ethnography – A Selection of Resources

Digital and Online Ethnography – A Selection of Resources published on 3 Comments on Digital and Online Ethnography – A Selection of Resources

Below you find a selection of resources on digital and online ethnography – with a slight focus on anthropological research – compiled by Philipp Budka.
To add and share your resources and/or references, please use this collaborative document.


Baym, N. (2010). Personal connections in the digital age. Cambridge: Polity.

Bell, D., & Kennedy, B. M. (Eds.). (2000) The Cybercultures Reader. London: Routledge.

Boellstorff, T. (2016). For whom the ontology turns: Theorizing the digital real. Current Anthropology, 57(4), 387–407.

Boellstorff, T. (2013). Digital anthropology. In Oxford Bibliographies.

Boellstorff, T. (2008). Coming of age in Second Life: An anthropologist explores the virtually human. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Boellstorff, et al. (2012). Ethnography and virtual worlds: A handbook of method. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bräuchler, B. (2013). Cyberidentities at war: The Moluccan conflict on the Internet. New York: Berghahn Books.

Buchanan, E. A. (2004). Readings in virtual research ethics: Issues and controversies. Hershey, PA: Information Science Pub.

Budka, P. (2018). [Review of the book Digital environments: Ethnographic perspectives across global online and offline spaces, by U. U. Frömming, S. Köhn, S. Fox & M. Terry]. Anthropos, 113(1), 303-304.

Budka, P. (2015). [Review of the book Cyberidentities at war: The Moluccan conflict on the Internet, by B. Bräuchler]. American Anthropologist, 117(1), 179-180.

Budka, P., & Kremser, M. (2004). CyberAnthropology – anthropology of cyberculture. In S. Khittel, B. Plankensteiner & M. Six-Hohenbalken (Eds.), Contemporary issues in socio-cultural anthropology: Perspectives and research activities from Austria (pp. 213-226). Vienna: Loecker Verlag.

Coleman, G. E. (2010). Ethnographic approaches to digital media. Annual Review of Anthropology 39(1), 487-505.

Dourish, P., & Bell, G. (2011). Divining a digital future: Mess and mythology in ubiquitous computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Frömming, U. U. et al. (Eds.). (2017). Digital environments: Ethnographic perspectives across global online and offline spaces. Bielefeld: transcript.

Hakken, D. (1999). Cyborgs@Cyberspace: An ethnographer looks to the future. London: Routledge.

Hine, C. (2015). Ethnography for the internet: Embedded, embodied and everyday. London: Bloomsbury Acad.

Hine, C. (2008). Virtual ethnography: Modes, varieties, affordances. In N. Fielding, R. M. Lee & G. Blank (Eds.), The Sage handbook of online research methods (pp. 257-270). London: Sage.

Hine, C. (2005). Internet research and the sociology of cyber-social-scientific knowledge. Information Society 21(4), 239-248.

Hine, C. (Ed.). (2005). Virtual methods: Issues in social research on the internet. Oxford: Berg.

Hine, C. (2000). Virtual ethnography. London: Sage.

Hjorth, L., et al. (Eds.). (2017). The Routledge Companion to digital ethnography, New York: Routledge.

Horst, H., & Miller, D. (Eds.). (2012). Digital anthropology. London: Berg.

Markham, A. (2011). Internet research. In D. Silverman (Ed.), Qualitative research: Issues of theory, method, and practice (pp. 111-128). 3rd edition. London: Sage.

Markham, A. (2005). The politics, ethics, and methods of representation in online ethnography. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 793-820). 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Markham, A., Baym, N. (Eds.). (2009). Internet inquiry: Conversations about method. Los Angeles: Sage.

Marshall, J. (2010). Ambiguity, oscillation and disorder: Online ethnography and the making of culture. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 2(3), 1-22.

Miller, D. & Slater, D. (2000). The internet: An ethnographic approach. Oxford: Berg.

Miller, D., et al. (2016). How the world changed social media. London: UCL Press.

Nardi, B. (2010). My life as a night elf priest: An anthropological account of World of Warcraft. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Pauwels, L. (2005). Websites as visual and multimodal cultural expressions: Opportunities and issues of online hybrid media research. Media Culture & Society 27(4), 604-613.

Pink, S. (2011). Digital visual anthropology: Potentials and challenges. In M. Banks & J. Ruby (Eds.), Made to be seen: Perspectives on the history of visual anthropology (pp. 209-233). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Pink, S., et al. (2016). Digital ethnography: Principles and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Postill, J., & Pink, S. (2012). Social media ethnography: The digital researcher in a messy web. Media International Australia, 145(1), 123-134.

Preece, J., & Maloney-Krichmar, D. (2005). Online communities: Design, theory, and practice. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10(4).

Sanjek, R., & Tratner, S. W. (Eds.). (2016). eFieldnotes: The makings of anthropology in the digital world. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Schaap, F. (2002). The words that took us there: Ethnography in a virtual reality. Amsterdam: Aksant Academic Publishers.

Silver, D. (2004). Internet/cyberculture/digital culture/new media/fill-in-the-Blank Studies. New Media & Society 6(1), 55-64.

Udupa, S., Costa, E., & Budka, P. (2018). The digital turn: New directions in media anthropology. Discussion Paper for the European Association of Social Anthropologists’ Media Anthropology Network.

Uimonen, P. (2015). Internet and social media: Anthropological aspects. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (pp. 600–605). New York: Elsevier.

Walter, F. & Grasseni, C. (Eds.). (2014). Anthrovision. Special issue “Digital visual engagements”.

Whitehead, N. L., & Wesch, M. (Eds.). (2012). Human no more: Digital subjectivities, unhuman subjects, and the end of anthropology. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.

Blog posts:

John Postill about “doing digital ethnography”:

Wendy Hsu about “ethnography beyond text and print”:

Research centres and initiatives:

Digital Ethnography Research Centre at RMIT University:

Digital Ethnography at Kansas State University:

OxDEG: The Oxford Digital Ethnography Group:

Further resources:

e-Seminars of the European Associtation of Social Anthropologists Media Anthropology Network:

The digital turn: New directions in media anthropology:

Facebook as research field and research platform:

Researching the internet:

LSE Digital Ethnography Collective reading list:


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